Bienvenue sur

A propos de PGI





Pourquoi 3 roues ?



Autres projets

Revue de presse

TTWs du Monde


According to the WHO, 280.000 users of motorized two and three-wheelers die each year on the roads worldwide. The risk of being killed in an accident is on average 20 times higher for a user of this type of vehicle than for a motorist.





In France alone, there have had 660 deaths among motorcyclists in 2014, 165 among moped riders, and thousands injured. Cumulatively, the motorized two-wheelers totaled 23% of road deaths while motorcyclists, to name only them, represent only 1.5% of the traffic.

Numerous hazards await the two-wheeler users, whose main purchase motivations are an access to a fluid and economically affordable mobility, and some driving fun for those who choose powerful motorbikes. The counterparty generally well understood is a high exposure to risk. Well understood or sometimes undergone because in many low- and middle-income countries, two-wheelers are often the only way of transport of the family. If they only represent a small share of the vehicle fleet in France, this is not the case everywhere. In Colombia, for example, they represent 45% of motor vehicles in circulation, 60% in China and 80% in India. In these countries where road deaths is growing each year, the two-wheeler users pay a heavy price: 3,500 deaths in Colombia, about 70,000 in China and India. Not to mention the number of often seriously injured users, for which it is difficult to obtain accurate data, but who are probably 10 times those numbers. Road safety is a real and dramatic public health problem worldwide.


One thing is certain: primary (active) and secondary safety systems (passive) of motorized two-wheelers have not reached the level of maturity of the automobiles ones. To maintain real the intrinsic benefits of the two and three-wheeled motorized and reduce the risks associated with their use, and the consequential injuries to a shock or a fall, Torga is experimenting different paths of safety improvement. In particular the aim is to complete the range of currently available devices (equipment for the driver and the passenger, airbag on the vehicle or integrated into the vest or the jacket) while providing new benefits, especially in term of comfort, in order to reach sustainable “mobility and pleasure” on two and three-wheelers.





The weak points of the two-wheeled vehicles:


Primary safety:

- Difficulty to stop the vehicle in emergency braking (even with ABS)

- Sensitivity on low grip surfaces

- Difficult to change trajectory quickly in emergency situations


Secondary safety:

- Poor level of the user’s equipment (gloves, boots, jacket with or without airbag, and still sometimes helmet)

- Airbag on vehicle optional



Because in a frontal impact, the ejection speed of the driver of a two-wheeler is the same as the initial speed of his vehicle, while a big part of the kinetic energy could be dissipated, and the speed of the user during the impact with the obstacle reduced, the Torga project aims to couple the driver and passenger with the vehicle.

Current situation – No coupling with the frame


During a crash at 50 km/h between a motorbike and an automobile, the driver of the two-wheeler is ejected at 50 Km/h while his vehicle undergoes a very high deceleration, generally inducing an uprising of the rear wheel.

If the shock occurs at the front hood of the car, the driver is usually ejected over a distance of up to 10 or 15 meters, causing fractures and burns. If the shock occurs at the highest part of the obstacle, the driver suffers major injuries, the most serious of which affecting the vertebrae, the ribs and the pelvis.





Coupling with the frame


In the case where the driver of the two-wheeler is coupled with the vehicle thanks to a seat belt for example, he benefits from the absorption of energy provided by the deformation of the front frame. His speed is notably reduced when the rear wheel leaves the ground.

At this point, the speed is 30 km/h for a small scooter and less than 10 km/h for a heavy motorcycle *. This is a reduction of 20 and more than 40 km / h, respectively.


* excluding bio-mechanical stresses


With programmed restraint


Because the coupling increases the tendency of the vehicle to the uprising in its shock phase and that at some point it is necessary to disconnect the user of the vehicle to avoid him the risk of being crushed, Torga is testing a “programmed restraint” system.


This system reacts according to the type of stress to which the vehicle is subjected: front shock, side or rear crash, fall etc ...


With programmed restraint and "survival cell”


Because regardless of the equipment of the user, it is necessary to improve the level of his protection during the ejection phase and the shock that follows, Torga is testing a "survival cell" that is made of a set “fairing – rollbar - seat” that protects him from the beginning to the end of the shock. The fairing couples the driver to the chassis. It plays the role of a shield and is made of a damping and abrasion resistant material.




With programmed restraint, "survival cell" and airbag


The driver’s protection is complemented by an airbag whose deployment is coordinated with the decoupling of the "survival cell". Its main mission is to reduce the intensity of the shock between the driver's head and the obstacle that is percussed.

The combination of the programmed restraint, that reduces the speed of the user at the moment of impact, with the "survival cell" equipped or not with an airbag has the effect of reducing the risk of injury of the user.





The graph below shows in ordinate the ejection speed of the driver (in km/h) depending on the speed

of his vehicle at impact, and the type of two-wheeler used.





The fairing can take various shapes. Although its primary purpose is to increase protection in case of accident, it also improves comfort in "normal" driving. In particular, it protects against the weather, mainly if it is equipped with an apron on its outskirts. It also reduces the wind pressure on the bust and helps to reduce aerodynamic drag. The apron meanwhile protects the lower limbs in case of impact.




This approach applies to two-wheelers and "more." For the three-wheeled, Torga proposes an architecture with two rear wheels (1F3T) that is more compatible with a "feet forward" position of the driver than an architecture with two front wheels (2F3T) and more relevant to the shock absorption.

This architecture offers a high potential in primary safety since it extends the ability of a tilting three-wheeler to reduce the risk of falls in curves.

Finally, on the basis of the works done on the prototypes “Pulsar”, Torga is also testing a "dynamic tilt control" to facilitate and boost the changes of trajectory, especially those in emergency situations.




Torga is a research project that aims to improve the safety of "two wheelers" at all levels. It proposes to supply technical responses to this issue while improving comfort features and the driving pleasure. However, these solutions ask for a new paradigm in the world of two wheelers. The questionnaire enclosed is to help define the contours of a sustainable “mobility and pleasure” on two and three wheels.

Secondly, Torga will focus on the propulsion modes able to marry sustainable pleasure, respect of the environment and preservation of the planet's resources.